Pakistan n. A country in South Asia formerly part of British India.
Synonyms: West Pakistan. Note: Data on Pakistan from the CIA WOrld Factbook, 1996 Geography: Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India and Iran Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E Map references: Asia Area: total area: 803,940 sq km land area: 778,720 sq km comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California Land boundaries: total: 6,774 km border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km Coastline: 1,046 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: status of Kashmir with India; border dispute with Afghanistan (Durand Line); water-sharing problems over the Indus (Wular Barrage) with upstream riparian India Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone Land use: arable land: 23% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 6% forest and woodland: 4% other: 67% (1993) Irrigated land: 170,000 sq km (1992) Environment: current issues: water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August) international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation Geographic note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent People: Population: 129,275,660 (July 1996 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 42% (male 28,286,823; female 26,640,019) 15-64 years: 53% (male 35,396,281; female 33,733,798) 65 years and over: 5% (male 2,621,721; female 2,597,018) (July 1996 est.) Population growth rate: 2.24% (1996 est.) Birth rate: 36.16 births/1,000 population (1996 est.) Death rate: 11.22 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.) Net migration rate: -2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female all ages: 1.05 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant mortality rate: 96.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.46 years male: 57.7 years female: 59.25 years (1996 est.) Total fertility rate: 5.25 children born/woman (1996 est.) Nationality: noun: Pakistani(s) adjective: Pakistani Ethnic divisions: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India and their descendants) Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3% Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8% Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 37.8% male: 50% female: 24.4% Government: Name of country: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan conventional short form: Pakistan former: West Pakistan Data code: PK Type of government: republic Capital: Islamabad Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK) National holiday: Pakistan Day, 23 March (1956) (proclamation of the republic) Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985 Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for non-Muslims Executive branch: chief of state: President Sardar Farooq LEGHARI (since 13 November 1993) was elected for a five-year term by Parliament; election last held 13 November 1993 (next to be held no later than 14 October 1998); results - LEGHARI was elected by Parliament and the four provincial assemblies head of government: Prime Minister Benazir BHUTTO (since 19 October 1993) was elected by the National Assembly cabinet: Cabinet was elected by the National Assembly Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora) Senate: elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (87 total) PPP 22, PML/N 17; Tribal Area Representatives (nonparty) 8, ANP 6, PML/J 5, JWP 5, MQM/A 5, JUI/F 2, PKMAP 2, JI 2, NPP 2, BNM/H 1, BNM/M 1, JUP/NI 1, JUP/NO 1, JAH 1, JUI/S 1, PML/F 1, PNP 1, independents 2, vacant 1 National Assembly: elections last held 6 October 1993 (next to be held by October 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (217 total) PPP 92, PML/N 75, PML/J 6, IJM-Islamic Democratic Front 4, ANP 3, PKMAP 4, PIF 3, JWP 2, MDM 2, BNM/H 1, BNM/M 1, NDA 1, NPP 1, PKQP 1, religious minorities 10 reserved seats, independents 9, results pending 2 Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judicial chiefs are appointed by the president; Federal Islamic (Shari'at) Court Political parties and leaders: government: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO; Pakistan Muslim League, Junejo faction (PML/J), Hamid Nasir CHATTHA; National People's Party (NPP), Ghulam Mustapha JATOI; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party (PKMAP), Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI; Balochistan National Movement, Hayee Group (BNM/H), Dr. HAYEE Baluch; National Democratic Alliance (NDA); Pakhtun Quami Party (PKQP), Mohammed AFZAL Khan opposition: Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N), Nawaz SHARIF; Awami National Party (ANP), Ajmal Khan KHATTAK; Pakistan Islamic Front (PIF); Balochistan National Movement, Mengal Group (BNM/M), Sardar Akhtar MENGAL; Mohajir Quami Movement, Altaf faction (MQM/A), Altaf HUSSAIN; Jamiat-al-Hadith (JAH); Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), Akbar Khan BUGTI frequently shifting: Mutaheda Deeni Mahaz (MDM), Maulana Sami-ul-HAQ, the MDM includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction (JUP/NI) and Anjuman Sepah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (ASSP); Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz (IJM-Islamic Democratic Front) includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Islami, Fazlur Rehman group (JUI/F); Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group (PML/F), Pir PAGARO; Pakistan National Party (PNP); Milli Yakjheti Council (MYC) is an umbrella organization which includes Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Qazi Hussain AHMED, Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction (JUI/S), Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan (TJP), Allama Sajid NAQVI, and Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction (JUP/NO) note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently Other political or pressure groups: military remains important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Maleeha LODHI chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (1) (202) 939-6200 FAX: (1) (202) 387-0484 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas SIMONS, Jr. embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 6220, APO AE 09812-2200 telephone: (92) (51) 826161 through 826179 FAX: (92) (51) 214222 consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore consulate(s): Peshawar Flag: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam Economy Economic overview: Pakistan is a poor, highly populated Third World country struggling to make the difficult transition to the modern world of high technology and internationalized markets. Prime Minister Benazir BHUTTO has been under pressure from the IMF and other donors to continue the economic reforms and austerity measures begun by her predecessor, caretaker Prime Minister Moeen QURESHI (July-October 1993). The IMF suspended a $1.5 billion Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) in mid-1995 because Pakistan slowed the pace of economic reform. Islamabad's most recent budget announced in June 1995 reversed some reforms agreed to by the IMF earlier that year, including a slowing of tariff reform. In mid-December 1995, however, the IMF approved a $600 million standby arrangement and urged Pakistan to move forward with economic liberalization. Islamabad has agreed to new economic targets with the IMF, which could lay the basis for a return to an ESAF in 1996. Little progress was made in the privatization of large state-owned units in 1995. The sale of the power plant Kot Addu - scheduled for April 1995 - was stalled by opposition from labor unions. The sale of a 26% share of United Bank Limited and the Pakistan Telecommunications Corporation to strategic investors was due to take place in 1995 but has been pushed back to 1996. On the plus side real GDP grew 4.7% in 1995, up from 3.9% in 1994: GDP should grow even faster in 1996 as a result of an above average cotton crop. Secondly, Islamabad reduced the budget deficit to 5.6% of GDP at the end of FY94/95, down from 8% two years earlier. Thirdly, Pakistan attracted $1.6 billion in foreign direct and portfolio investment in FY94/95, more than double inflows of $650 million in the previous fiscal year; financial agreements were reached on five power projects in 1995, including the 1,300-MW $1.8 billion Hab River project. Despite these improvements, the economy remains vulnerable to crisis. Foreign exchange reserves fell dramatically in 1995, reaching a low of about $1 billion in early December 1995 only five weeks of import cover before rising to $1.5 billion by yearend. The trade deficit rose to $2 billion for the first six months of FY94/95, triple the deficit of $600 million during the same period in FY93/94. The government responded to this situation with a package of stabilization reforms on 28 October 1995 which included a 7% devaluation of the rupee, supplementary duties of 10% on many imports, and higher petroleum prices. Islamabad hopes these moves will help make its exports more competitive. For the long run, Pakistan must deal with serious problems of deteriorating infrastructure, low literacy levels, and persistent law and order problems in Karachi. GDP: purchasing power parity - $274.2 billion (1995 est.) GDP real growth rate: 4.7% (1995 est.) GDP per capita: $2,100 (1995 est.) GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 24% industry: 27% services: 49% (1995 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13% (1995 est.) Labor force: 36 million by occupation: agriculture 46%, mining and manufacturing 18%, services 17%, other 19% note: extensive export of labor Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues: $11.9 billion expenditures: $12.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95) Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995 est.) Electricity: capacity: 12,530,000 kW (1995) production: 43.3 billion kWh (1995) consumption per capita: 389 kWh (1993) Agriculture: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of opium and hashish for the international drug trade; remains world's fourth largest opium producer (155 metric tons in 1995); major center for processing Afghan heroin and key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western market Exports: $8.7 billion (1995 est.) commodities: cotton, textiles, clothing, rice, leather, carpets partners: US, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, UK, UAE, France Imports: $10.7 billion (1995 est.) commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation equipment, vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals partners: Japan, US, Germany, UK, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, South Korea External debt: $26 billion (1995 est.) Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $697 million (1993) note: $2.5 billion (includes bilateral and multilateral aid but no US commitments) (FY93/94); $3 billion (includes bilateral and multilateral aid but no US commitments) (FY94/95) Currency: 1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 34.339 (January 1996), 31.643 (1995), 30.567 (1994), 28.107 (1993), 25.083 (1992), 23.801 (1991) Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June Transportation: Railways: total: 8,163 km broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified; 1,037 km double track) narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge; 661 km less than 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.) Highways: total: 205,304 km paved: 104,735 km unpaved: 100,569 km (1995 est.) Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas 4,044 km (1987) Ports: Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim Merchant marine: total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 345,606 GRT/560,641 DWT ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 19, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1995 est.) Airports: total: 100 with paved runways over 3,047 m: 12 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 25 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 11 with paved runways under 914 m: 18 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8 (1995 est.) Heliports: 6 (1995 est.) Communications: Telephones: 1.572 million (1993 est.) Telephone system: the domestic system is mediocre, but adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the major portion of the population domestic: microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 8, shortwave 11 Radios: 11.3 million (1992 est.) Television broadcast stations: 29 Televisions: 2.08 million (1993 est.) Defense: Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 30,519,339 males fit for military service: 18,720,175 males reach military age (17) annually: 1,437,208 (1996 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.1 billion, 5.3% of GDP (FY95/96)